...fostering unity

among Yoruba people

...promoting the

teaching of Yoruba culture

...celebrating the

values of Yoruba

Ise Yoruba - Reviewed by Sobande Seyi

 

1.0 Introduction 
Essentially, Intellectual disability refers to delayed intellectual growth that is manifested in inmature reactions to environmental stimuli and below average social and academic performance.
Today, the field concerned with intellectual disabilities are expanding, particularly with new findings from medicine and genetics. Geneticists have identified specific behavioural phenotypes that is, different from genetic syndromes that shows certain behaviours and developmental sequel.
Academic performance, especially of Senior Secondary School Students has been largely associated with many factors. Most students in Senior Secondary Schools in Nigeria are daily confronted with challenges of coping with academics under serious emotional strains occasioned by long walk to school, poor school environment and being taught by unmotivated teachers. Coupled with this is an uncooperative study attitude of parents.
In addition, the placement of persons with intellectual disability is a difficult task, therefore, critical therapeutic and psychological tests need to be carried out to help identify their disabilities, interests and psychological characteristics.
Psychological inventories such as Vocational Interest Inventories (VII), Student Problem Inventories (SPI) and Motivation of Occupation Preference Skills (MOPS) are used for proper judgements and placement.
Hence, the following traits and features should be taken into consideration before counseling and placement. This features includes:
Nature of disability (i.e.) severity.
Mental ability i.e. I.Q level
Need/value for vocation
Vocational interest and innate disability
Physiological ability and capability
Emotional intelligence and stability
Family background to offer the needed support for the provision of the vocational equipment or materials needed.
Provision of correct information for adequate development
Frank and Sittlington (2005) observed that one year after graduation from high school, only 6.5% of the students with this disability who had enrolled in some type of postsecondary setting were still in school.
In addition, many of the intellectually disabled students who were no longer in school were also unemployed.
Listed below are other statistics which demonstrates the extent of the problem and the subsequent cost of the society if better solutions are not found.
50% of Juvenile delinquents tested were found to have undetected learning or intellectual disability.
Up to 60% of adolescents in treatment for substance abuse have intellectual disability.
31% of adolescents with intellectual disabilities are often arrested 3-5years out of high school.
Learning disabilities and substance abuse are the most common impediments to keeping welfare clients from becoming and remaining employed, according to the (2004) report from the office of the Inspector General.
Successful postsecondary college experiences can lead to financial independence and self-sufficiency. A report from the U.S Department of Education, Commerce and Labour (2008) opined that workers with a college degree earn 77% more than those with only a high school diploma. The report also noted that workers with college degrees enjoy greater benefits and experiences less unemployment if dislocated from their jobs and have a better chance of obtaining employer provided training. While on the contrary intellectual disabled Students who drop out of school are more likely to experience economic and social difficulties, Barga (2007).
Therefore, unemployed adults with disabilities become consumers of public resources instead of contributors.
Sinclair and Foreness (2010) state that clinical depression and suicide are six times greater in the intellectually disabled population. Also, since repeated failures and negative feedback from significant others can lead to low sense of self-worth and esteem.
Thomson (2006) opined that students with intellectual disability or problems often enter a self defeating cycle in which academic failure and self-doubt impact on each other.
Villa and thousand (2004) opined that counseling this population of students has become a complex task which requires not only understanding of counseling theories and techniques but also the knowledge of the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders.
Enright (2012) compared the relationship between disability status, career beliefs and career indecision discovered that disability was a significant predictor of career indecision. Therefore, the need for further studies was suggested to ascertain how counselors determine how a disability may have shaped a students perception of his/her abilities and career goals, understanding the needs of the students is indeed a difficult task particularly when these students are faced with so many barriers.
Danesy (2005) noted that lack of sufficient institutions for persons with disabilities and lack of total integration of the Nigeria’s various Universities, Polytechnics, Technical Colleges and Colleges of Education in order to accommodate persons with special needs posed problems of admission to these category of people.
Adelowo (2005) noted that for any academic or vocational educational curriculum to succeed in promoting meaningful learning, the emotional, intelligence, temperament, psychological states, the environment, tools for learning and the change agents must be taken into account so as to bring about inclusiveness in their programmes. He then recommended total inclusiveness or adapted learning, collaborative efforts of experts to facilitate their learning and regular funding of academic and vocational learning for persons with special needs in Nigeria.
Therefore, the learning environment for people with special needs has to be conducive and be free and devoid of obstacles or barriers that will obstruct their mobility and narrow entrance or doors, hand object or dumb that may inflict accidents or wounds on them. Rather their learning environment should be constructed to include:
Ramps side by side with steps, to allow for easy entrance of wheel chairs or concrete alleys.
Railings alongside major roads to assure and allow for easy mobility and safety of the intellectually disabled child or person.
The governments and schools or college management should provide shuttle buses for persons with intellectual disability to enable them travel any distance for their vocational training.
Therefore to achieve and enhance a realistic and functional vocational education training or programme that would facilitate life skill acquisition that could transform the lives of persons with intellectual disability within Nigeria Society includes:
Effective counseling Unit, which should be put in all vocational and special schools to enhance effective counseling and vocational placement for persons affected with intellectual disability.
The government at the three-tier of government should increase the financial allocation of funds and materials for the vocational training programmes of intellectually disabled individuals.
To plan vocational or career training programmes that will take into consideration the psychological status, emotional intelligence and adaptation or adjustment of persons with intellectual disability.
Enhance the recruitment of more specialized staff and personnel in various fields for the academic and vocational training of the person affected with intellectual disability.

1.0 Introduction Essentially, Intellectual disability refers to delayed intellectual growth that is manifested in inmature reactions to environmental stimuli and below average social and academic performance.Today, the field concerned with intellectual disabilities are expanding, particularly with new findings from medicine and genetics. Geneticists have identified specific behavioural phenotypes that is, different from genetic syndromes that shows certain behaviours and developmental sequel.Academic performance, especially of Senior Secondary School Students has been largely associated with many factors. Most students in Senior Secondary Schools in Nigeria are daily confronted with challenges of coping with academics under serious emotional strains occasioned by long walk to school, poor school environment and being taught by unmotivated teachers. Coupled with this is an uncooperative study attitude of parents.In addition, the placement of persons with intellectual disability is a difficult task, therefore, critical therapeutic and psychological tests need to be carried out to help identify their disabilities, interests and psychological characteristics.Psychological inventories such as Vocational Interest Inventories (VII), Student Problem Inventories (SPI) and Motivation of Occupation Preference Skills (MOPS) are used for proper judgements and placement.Hence, the following traits and features should be taken into consideration before counseling and placement. This features includes:• Nature of disability (i.e.) severity.• Mental ability i.e. I.Q level• Need/value for vocation• Vocational interest and innate disability• Physiological ability and capability• Emotional intelligence and stability• Family background to offer the needed support for the provision of the vocational equipment or materials needed.• Provision of correct information for adequate developmentFrank and Sittlington (2005) observed that one year after graduation from high school, only 6.5% of the students with this disability who had enrolled in some type of postsecondary setting were still in school.In addition, many of the intellectually disabled students who were no longer in school were also unemployed.Listed below are other statistics which demonstrates the extent of the problem and the subsequent cost of the society if better solutions are not found. 50% of Juvenile delinquents tested were found to have undetected learning or intellectual disability. Up to 60% of adolescents in treatment for substance abuse have intellectual disability. 31% of adolescents with intellectual disabilities are often arrested 3-5years out of high school. Learning disabilities and substance abuse are the most common impediments to keeping welfare clients from becoming and remaining employed, according to the (2004) report from the office of the Inspector General.Successful postsecondary college experiences can lead to financial independence and self-sufficiency. A report from the U.S Department of Education, Commerce and Labour (2008) opined that workers with a college degree earn 77% more than those with only a high school diploma. The report also noted that workers with college degrees enjoy greater benefits and experiences less unemployment if dislocated from their jobs and have a better chance of obtaining employer provided training. While on the contrary intellectual disabled Students who drop out of school are more likely to experience economic and social difficulties, Barga (2007). Therefore, unemployed adults with disabilities become consumers of public resources instead of contributors. Sinclair and Foreness (2010) state that clinical depression and suicide are six times greater in the intellectually disabled population. Also, since repeated failures and negative feedback from significant others can lead to low sense of self-worth and esteem.Thomson (2006) opined that students with intellectual disability or problems often enter a self defeating cycle in which academic failure and self-doubt impact on each other.Villa and thousand (2004) opined that counseling this population of students has become a complex task which requires not only understanding of counseling theories and techniques but also the knowledge of the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders.Enright (2012) compared the relationship between disability status, career beliefs and career indecision discovered that disability was a significant predictor of career indecision. Therefore, the need for further studies was suggested to ascertain how counselors determine how a disability may have shaped a students perception of his/her abilities and career goals, understanding the needs of the students is indeed a difficult task particularly when these students are faced with so many barriers.Danesy (2005) noted that lack of sufficient institutions for persons with disabilities and lack of total integration of the Nigeria’s various Universities, Polytechnics, Technical Colleges and Colleges of Education in order to accommodate persons with special needs posed problems of admission to these category of people.Adelowo (2005) noted that for any academic or vocational educational curriculum to succeed in promoting meaningful learning, the emotional, intelligence, temperament, psychological states, the environment, tools for learning and the change agents must be taken into account so as to bring about inclusiveness in their programmes. He then recommended total inclusiveness or adapted learning, collaborative efforts of experts to facilitate their learning and regular funding of academic and vocational learning for persons with special needs in Nigeria.Therefore, the learning environment for people with special needs has to be conducive and be free and devoid of obstacles or barriers that will obstruct their mobility and narrow entrance or doors, hand object or dumb that may inflict accidents or wounds on them. Rather their learning environment should be constructed to include:• Ramps side by side with steps, to allow for easy entrance of wheel chairs or concrete alleys.• Railings alongside major roads to assure and allow for easy mobility and safety of the intellectually disabled child or person.• The governments and schools or college management should provide shuttle buses for persons with intellectual disability to enable them travel any distance for their vocational training.Therefore to achieve and enhance a realistic and functional vocational education training or programme that would facilitate life skill acquisition that could transform the lives of persons with intellectual disability within Nigeria Society includes:• Effective counseling Unit, which should be put in all vocational and special schools to enhance effective counseling and vocational placement for persons affected with intellectual disability.• The government at the three-tier of government should increase the financial allocation of funds and materials for the vocational training programmes of intellectually disabled individuals.• To plan vocational or career training programmes that will take into consideration the psychological status, emotional intelligence and adaptation or adjustment of persons with intellectual disability.• Enhance the recruitment of more specialized staff and personnel in various fields for the academic and vocational training of the person affected with intellectual disability.

 

Reviewed Publications

  • Ise Yoruba - Reviewed by Sobande Seyi
  • Asa ati Ede - Reviewed by Adedigba Sylvester
  • View All →

    Subscribe to Our
    Newsletter

    Quotable Quote

    The only person that is educated is the one that has learned how to learn and change. - Carl Rogers

    Ọwọ́ ọmọdé kò tó pẹpẹ ti àgbàlagbà kò wọ kèrègbè

     

    Ewé kì í bọ́ lára igi kó ni igi lára ----- the dropping of a leaf off a tree presents no burden to the tree.

    © 2019 Egbe Akomolede ati Asa Yoruba Naijiria. All Rights Reserved.